When the caries cross the boundaries of the enamel and dentin and affect the nerve, an inflammation is called, called pulpitis. In untreated or improperly treated pulpitis, inflammation passes from the root canals to the bone and causes periodontitis. In both cases root treatment is required. The treatment is performed under local anesthesia. Infected soft tissue is removed and the ducts are filled.
The filling is done without leaving empty spaces. The presence of moisture in the channels during filling would ruin the result.
An important condition for proper treatment is isolation with cofferdam. This prevents saliva from entering the canals and further infecting them. Cofferdam allows the canals to be thoroughly flushed with strong antiseptic solutions that would otherwise burn the gum.
The determination of the working length is done with an electronic apparatus - apexlocator. So the healer is sure that he has fully processed the channels. An X-ray must be taken after filling.